Bida antara revisi nibak "Jeureuman"

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[[Beureukaih:Europe location GER.png|jmpl|ka|250px|Nanggroë Jeureuman]]
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'''Jeureuman''' ([[bahsa Jeureuman]]: ''Deutschland'', ''Bundesrepublik Deutschland'') nakeuh saboh neugara nyang na di [[Ierupa Barat]] ngon nang nanggroëjih nakeuh [[Berlin]].
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For other uses, see Canada (disambiguation).
Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre
Motto: "A Mari Usque Ad Mare" (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
(As seen on the Arms of Canada)
Anthem: "O Canada"
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]
Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W
Largest city Toronto
Official languages
English French
Recognised regional languages
Chipewyan Cree Gwich’in Inuinnaqtun Inuktitut Inuvialuktun North Slavey South Slavey Tłı̨chǫ
Ethnic groups
76.7% White
14.2% Asian
4.3% Aboriginal
2.9% Black
1.2% Latin American
0.5% multiracial
0.3% other
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy[2]
- Monarch Elizabeth II
- Governor General David Johnston
- Prime Minister Stephen Harper
- Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin
Legislature Parliament
- Upper house Senate
- Lower house House of Commons
Establishment from the United Kingdom
- Constitution Act, 1867 July 1, 1867
- Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931
- Patriation April 17, 1982
- Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi
- Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)
- Q2 2015 estimate 35,749,600[3] (37th)
- 2011 census 33,476,688[4]
- Density 3.41/km2 (228th)
8.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
- Total $1.640 trillion[5] (15th)
- Per capita $45,722[5] (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
- Total $1.615 trillion[5] (11th)
- Per capita $45,028[5] (15th)
Gini (2010) 33.7[6]
medium · 103rd[7]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.902[8]
very high · 8th
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8)
- Summer (DST) (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date format
yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code CA
Internet TLD .ca
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America. It extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles) in total, making it the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's common border with the United States forms the world's longest land border.
The land now called Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region's Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing Dominion. In 1931, Britain granted Canada near total independence with the Statute of Westminster 1931 and full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, Queen Elizabeth II being the current head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of 2015. Its advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally, and the eighth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a Commonwealth Realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
Government and politics
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This article is about the People's Republic of China. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan. For other uses, see China (disambiguation).
"PRC" redirects here. For other uses, see PRC (disambiguation).
People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Flag National Emblem
"March of the Volunteers"
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Capital Beijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E
Largest city Shanghai[1]
Official languages Standard Chinese[2][b]
Recognised regional languages
Mongolian Tibetan Uyghur Zhuang various others
Official written language Vernacular Chinese
Official script Simplified Chinese[2]
Ethnic groups
91.51% Han[3]
55 minorities[c]
1.30% Zhuang
0.86% Manchu
0.79% Uyghur
0.79% Hui
0.72% Miao
0.65% Yi
0.62% Tujia
0.47% Mongol
0.44% Tibetan
0.26% Buyei
0.15% Korean
1.05% others
Demonym Chinese
Government Socialist single-party state[4]
- President Xi Jinping[d]
- Premier Li Keqiang
- Congress Chairman Zhang Dejiang
- Conference Chairman Yu Zhengsheng
- President of the Supreme People's Court Zhou Qiang
Legislature National People's Congress
- First Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty 221 BCE
- Republic established 1 January 1912
- People's Republic proclaimed 1 October 1949
- Total 9,596,961 km2[e] (3rd/4th)
3,705,407 sq mi
- Water (%) 0.28%[f]
- 2015 estimate 1,376,049,000[9] (1st)
- 2010 census 1,339,724,852[10] (1st)
- Density 2013 :[11] 145/km2 (83rd)
373/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
- Total $18.976 trillion[12] (1st)
- Per capita $13,801[12] (87th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
- Total $11.212 trillion[12] (2nd)
- Per capita $8,154[12] (75th)
Gini (2012) 55.0[13][14]
HDI (2013) Increase 0.719[15]
high · 91st
Currency Renminbi (yuan)(¥)[g] (CNY)
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format
or yyyy年m月d日
(CE; CE-1949)
Drives on the right[h]
Calling code +86
ISO 3166 code CN
Internet TLD
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.35 billion. The PRC is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing.[16] It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The PRC also claims the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory, which includes the island of Taiwan as Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province. These claims are controversial because of the complex political status of Taiwan.[17]
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world's second-largest country by land area,[18] and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement.[i] China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas.
China is considered a cradle of civilization, with its known history beginning with an ancient civilization – one of the world's earliest – that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (c. 2800 BCE). Since 221 BCE, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and been reformed numerous times. The Republic of China (ROC) overthrew the last dynasty in 1911, and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949. After the surrender of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Communist Party defeated the nationalist Kuomintang in mainland China and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to its present capital of Taipei.
China had the largest and most complex economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.[19][20] Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal total GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.[21] China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, with the second-largest defence budget.[22][23] The PRC has been a United Nations member since 1971, when it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM and the G-20. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of commentators.[24][25]
Science and technology
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This article is about the country. For other uses, see Cuba (disambiguation).
Republic of Cuba
República de Cuba (Spanish)
Five horizontal stripes: three blue and two white. A red equilateral triangle at the left of the flag, partly covering the stripes, with a white five pointed star in the centre of the triangle. A shield in front of a fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish)
"Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]
Anthem: La Bayamesa
Bayamo Song [2]
Location of Cuba (green)
and largest city Havana
23°8′N 82°23′W
Official languages Spanish
Ethnic groups (2012[3])
64.1% White
26.6% Mulatto or Mestizo
9.3% Black
Demonym Cuban
Government Marxist–Leninist single-party state
- President Raúl Castro
- First Vice President Miguel Díaz-Canel[4]
- Prime Minister Raúl Castro
President of the
National Assembly
Esteban Lazo Hernández
Legislature National Assembly of People's Power
- War of Independence February 24, 1895
- Recognized (Handed over from Spain to the United States) December 10, 1898
- Republic declared (Independence from United States) May 20, 1902
- Cuban Revolution July 26, 1953 - January 1, 1959
- Current constitution February 24, 1976
- Total 109,884 km2 (106th)
42,426 sq mi
- Water (%) negligible[5]
- 2014 census 11,238,317[6]
- Density 102/km2 (106th)
264.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
- Total $212 billion[7] (58th)
- Per capita $18,796[8] (60th)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
- Total $78.694 billion[9] (64th)
- Per capita $6,985[10] (86th)
Gini (2000) 38.0[11]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.815[12]
very high · 44th
Peso (CUP)
Convertible pesoa
Time zone CST (UTC−5)
- Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +53
ISO 3166 code CU
Internet TLD .cu
a. From 1993 to 2004, the United States dollar was used alongside the peso until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: About this sound República de Cuba ), is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos. Havana is Cuba's capital and its largest city.[13][14][15] The United States is to the north of Cuba 150 km (93 mi) away, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands to the northeast, Mexico to the west 210 km (130 mi) away, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica to the south and Haiti to the southeast.
Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes before the landing of explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492, who claimed it for the Kingdom of Spain. Cuba remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, after which it gained nominal independence as a de facto U.S. protectorate in 1902. The fragile republic endured increasingly radical politics and social strife, and despite efforts to strengthen its democratic system, Cuba came under the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952.[16][17][18] Growing unrest and instability led to Batista's ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 movement, which afterwards established a government under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965 the country has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba.
Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean and, with over 11 million inhabitants, the second-most populous after Hispaniola. It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is ranked very high for human development by the United Nations, and high for health and education.[19][20][21] In 2015, it became the first country to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis, a milestone hailed by the WHO as "one of the greatest public health achievements possible."[22]
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"Russian Federation" redirects here. For the Soviet republic also referred to as the "Russian Federation", see Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. For other uses of "Russia", see Russia (disambiguation).
Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
Flag Coat of arms
"Государственный гимн Российской Федерации"
"Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii" (transliteration)
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Russia (dark green) Crimean peninsula (disputed) (light green)a
Russia (dark green)
Crimean peninsula (disputed) (light green)a
and largest city Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E
Official languages Russian
Recognised languages 35 other languages co-official in various regions[citation needed]
Ethnic groups (2010[1])
81.0% Russian
3.7% Tatar
1.4% Ukrainian
1.1% Bashkir
1.0% Chuvash
0.8% Chechen
11.0% others / unspecified
Demonym Russian
Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
- President Vladimir Putin
- Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
- Chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matviyenko
- Chairman of the State Duma Sergey Naryshkin
Legislature Federal Assembly
- Upper house Federation Council
- Lower house State Duma
- Arrival of Rurik, considered as a foundation event by the Russian authorities[2] 862
- Kievan Rus' 882
- Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283
- Tsardom of Russia 16 January 1547
- Russian Empire 22 October 1721
- Russian SFSR 6 November 1917
- Soviet Union 10 December 1922
- Russian Federation 25 December 1991
- Adoption of the current Constitution of Russia 12 December 1993
- Total 17,098,242 (Crimea not included) km2 (1st)
6,592,800 (Crimea not included) sq mi
- Water (%) 13[3] (including swamps)
- 2015 estimate 143,975,923[4] (Crimea not included) [5] (9th)
- Density 8.4/km2 (217th)
21.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
- Total $3.458 trillion[6] (6th)
- Per capita $24,067[7] (53rd)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
- Total $1.176 trillion[6] (15th)
- Per capita $8,184[7] (74th)
Gini (2013) 40.1[8]
medium · 83rd
HDI (2013) Steady 0.778[9]
high · 57th
Currency Russian ruble (₽) (RUB)
Time zone (UTC+2 to +12)
Date format
Drives on the right
Calling code +7
ISO 3166 code RU
Internet TLD
a. The Crimean Peninsula is recognized as territory of Ukraine by most of the international community, but is de facto administered by Russia.[10]
Russia (Listeni/ˈrʌʃə/; Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), also officially known as the Russian Federation[11] (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a country in northern Eurasia.[12] It is a federal semi-presidential republic. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with nearly 144 million people in November 2014.[13][5]
Extending across the entirety of northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.[14] Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire,[15] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium.[15] Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde.[16] The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.[17][18]
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower,[19] which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II.[20][21] The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, and the first man in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state) of the Union state.[22]
The Russian economy ranks as the fifteenth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015.[23] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world,[24] have made it one of the largest producers of oil and natural gas globally.[25][26] The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.[27] Russia was the world's second biggest exporter of major arms in 2010-14, according to SIPRI data.[28]
Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the 5 members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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== Neuweuëk Nanggroë ==
Pengguna anonim