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Drake (rapper)
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Drake
 
Drake performing at Ottawa Bluesfest in 2010
Born Aubrey Drake Graham
October 24, 1986 (age 28)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Residence Hidden Hills, California, U.S.[1]
Occupation
Rapper singer actor songwriter
Years active 2001–present
Relatives
Larry Graham (uncle)
Teenie Hodges (uncle)
Musical career
Genres
Hip hop R&B
Labels
Universal Motown Young Money Cash Money Republic OVO Sound
Associated acts
Birdman Young Money 2 Chainz Lil Wayne Nicki Minaj Rihanna Rick Ross The Weeknd
Website drakeofficial.com
Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986),[2] who records under the mononym Drake, is a Canadian rapper, songwriter, and actor. He was born in Toronto, Ontario.[3] He first garnered recognition for his role as Jimmy Brooks on the television series Degrassi: The Next Generation. He later rose to prominence as a rapper, releasing several mixtapes like Room for Improvement before signing to Lil Wayne's Young Money Entertainment in June 2009.[4]
 
Drake's EP, So Far Gone (2009), spawned the hit single "Best I Ever Had" and the moderate hit "Successful". His first studio album, Thank Me Later (2010), debuted at number one on the Billboard 200[5] and generated notable singles, "Over" and "Find Your Love". It was certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). His second album, Take Care (2011), is his most successful to date, topping charts in the United States and Canada and producing multiple hit singles, including "Headlines", "Take Care", "Make Me Proud", and "The Motto", the last of which is also credited for popularizing the widely used acronym YOLO. In promotion of Take Care, Drake embarked on the worldwide Club Paradise Tour, which became the most successful hip-hop tour of 2012, grossing over $42 million.[6] His third studio album Nothing Was the Same was released on September 24, 2013. It has so far been supported by the singles "Started from the Bottom" and "Hold On, We're Going Home".
 
Drake has sold over 5 million albums worldwide.[7] His work has earned him a Grammy Award, three Juno Awards, six BET Awards, and set several significant Billboard records. With twelve number-one singles, Drake has more than any other artist on Billboard's Hot Rap Songs chart. With ten number-one singles, he also has more than any other rapper on Billboard '​s Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, passing Jay-Z in August 2012.[8] He is one of two artists (the other being 50 Cent) that has simultaneously occupied the chart's top three positions.
 
Drake, along with being a record producer under the pseudonym C. Papi, has also written songs for other artists, including Alicia Keys ("Un-Thinkable (I'm Ready)"), Rita Ora ("R.I.P."), Jamie Foxx and Trey Songz. He featured as a voice actor in Ice Age: Continental Drift as the mammoth Ethan.[9] Drake was tied with Rihanna for the most nominations at the 2012 MTV Video Music Awards.[10] He was ranked No. 2 on MTV's Hottest MCs in the Game VII list in 2012.[11] Drake became the #1 Rhythmic artist of 2012 based on Mediabase.[12]
 
Life and career
Artistry
Feuds
Toronto Raptors
Discography
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Egypt
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This article is about the modern country. For the ancient realm, see Ancient Egypt.
For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation).
Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Jumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah (Arabic)
Gomhoreyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabeyya (Egyptian Arabic)
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
My country, my country, my country
 
 
Capital
and largest city Cairo
30°2′N 31°13′E
Official languages Arabic[a]
National language Egyptian Arabic
Demonym Egyptian
Government Unitary semi-presidential
republic
- President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
- Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab
Legislature Legislation by presidential decree (Temporarily until the House of Representatives is elected)
Establishment
- Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt[1][2][c] c. 3150 BC
- Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated 9 July 1805[3]
- Independence from
the United Kingdom 28 February 1922
- Republic declared 18 June 1953
- Revolution Day 23 July 1952
- Current Constitution 18 January 2014
Area
- Total 1,002,450 km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi
- Water (%) 0.632
Population
- 2015 estimate 87,900,000[4] (15th)
- 2006 census 72,798,000[5]
- Density 84/km2 (126th)
218/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
- Total $945.388 billion[6]
- Per capita $11,073[6]
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
- Total $284.860 billion[6]
- Per capita $3,336[6]
Gini (2008) 30.8[7]
medium
HDI (2013) 0.682[8]
medium · 110th
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
- Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3[b])
Drives on the right
Calling code +20
ISO 3166 code EG
Internet TLD
.eg
مصر.
a. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language.[9] Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
b. ^ Summer time was reintroduced in 2014.
c. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".[10][11] Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
Egypt (i/ˈiːdʒɪpt/; Arabic: مِصر‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر Maṣr) is an Afro-Asiatic transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of Egypt's territory of 1,010,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi) lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa, but it is also considered a Mediterranean country as it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is also bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
 
With over 87 million inhabitants, Egypt is the largest country in North Africa and the Arab World, the third-largest in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
 
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world's first nation states.[12] Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.
 
Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world.[13] Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011, long term President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was ousted by the army a year later amid mass protests.
 
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Islam
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For other uses, see Islam (disambiguation).
 
The Kaaba, in Mecca, Hejaz region, today's Saudi Arabia, is the center of Islam. Muslims from all over the world gather there to pray in unity.
Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/;[note 1] Arabic: الإسلام‎, al-ʾIslām IPA: [ælʔɪsˈlæːm] ( )[note 2]) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, an Islamic holy book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allāh), and for the vast majority of adherents, also by the teachings, normative example and way of life (or sunnah); it also is composed of prophetic traditions (or hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim (or Moslem)
 
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable[1] and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[2] Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.[3] They maintain that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted or altered over time,[4] but consider the Arabic Qur'an to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God.[5] Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare, to family life and the environment.[6][7]
 
Most Muslims are of two denominations: Sunni (75–90%)[8] or Shia (10–20%).[9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia,[10] the largest Muslim-majority country, 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[12] Sizable minorities are also found in Europe, China, Russia, and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world (see Islam by country). With about 1.6 billion followers or 23% of world population,[13][14] Islam is the second-largest religion and one of the fastest-growing major religions in the world.[15][16][17]
 
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Articles of faith
Five pillars
Law and jurisprudence
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Denominations
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Muslim
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For other uses, see Muslim (name) and Muslim (disambiguation).
 
Set of pictures for a number of famous Muslims from various fields.
A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem,[1] relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam,[2] a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. Muslims consider the Quran to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. They also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts called hadith.[3] "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits (to God)".[4] A female Muslim is sometimes called a "Muslimah".
 
Most Muslims accept as a Muslim anyone who has publicly pronounced the Shahadah (declaration of faith) which states:
 
There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.[5]
 
Islamic beliefs commonly held by Muslims include: that God (Arabic: الله‎ Allāh) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (monotheism); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Moses, Ishmael and Jesus;[6] that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time[7] and that the Qur'an is the final unaltered revelation from God (The Final Testament).[8] The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.[9]
 
The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam, which, in addition to Shahadah, consist of daily prayers (salat), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[10][11]
 
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Philistines
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This article is about the biblical people. For the derogatory term, see Philistinism. For other uses, see Philistines (disambiguation).
 
The Biblical description identifies five Philistine cities: Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, and Gath
The Philistines (/ˈfɪlɨstiːnz/, /ˈfɪlɨstaɪnz/, /fɨˈlɪstɨnz/, or /fɨˈlɪstiːnz/;[1] Hebrew: פְּלִשְׁתִּים, Plištim) were a people described in the Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew term "pelistim" occurs 286 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew bible (of which 152 times in Samuel 1), whereas in the Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Bible, the equivalent term phylistiim occurs only 12 times, with the remaining 269 references instead using the term "allophylos" ("of another tribe").[2]
 
According to Joshua 13:3 and 1 Samuel 6:17, the land of the Philistines (or Allophyloi), called Philistia, was a Pentapolis in south-western Levant comprised the five city-states of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, from Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north, but with no fixed border to the east.[2] The Bible portrays them at one period of time as among the Kingdom of Israel's most dangerous enemies.[2] Biblical scholars have connected the Philistines to other biblical groups such as Caphtorim and the Cherethites and Pelethites, which have both been identified with Crete, and leading to the tradition of an Aegean origin,[3] although this theory has been disputed.[4][5] See also Palestinian People.
 
Outside of the Bible, the evidence for and origins of the Philistines are not clear and is the subject of considerable research and speculation in biblical archaeology. Since 1822, scholars have connected the Biblical Philistines with the Egyptian "Peleset" inscriptions,[6] all five of which appear from c.1150 BCE just as archaeological references to "Kinaḫḫu" or "Ka-na-na" (Canaan) come to an end,[7] and since 1873 they have both been connected with the Aegean "Pelasgians".[8][9] Whilst the evidence for these connections is etymological and has been disputed,[9][10] this identification is held by the majority of egyptologists and biblical archaeologists.[9] Archaeological research to date has been unable to corroborate a mass settlement of Philistines during the Ramesses III era.[11][12]
 
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Philistines in the Bible
Archaeological evidence
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